Plum Curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar) is a fruit pest attacking apple, nectarine, plum, cherry, peach, apricot, pear and quince. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. x�+�r <>stream The membrane was removed before placing the dispenser in the olfactometer arm. 27 0 obj <>>>/Contents 18 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> For each experiment and sex, means having no letter in common are significantly different (ANOVA, Tukey-Kramer HSD. A. Amis and J. W. Snow, “Conotrachelus nenuphar,” in, J. R. Thomson, “Sex differentiation of adults of, T. Kalule and D. J. Wright, “The influence of cultivar and cultivar-aphid odours on the olfactory response of the parasitoid, G. Racette, S. B. Hill, and C. Vincent, “Actographs for recording daily activity of plum curculio (Coleopera: Curculionidae),”, S. Lamothe, G. Chouinard, and C. Vincent, “Abiotic factors and trap design modulate the performance of traps used to monitor the plum curculio,”, T. C. Leskey, J. C. Piñero, and R. J. Prokopy, “Odor-baited trap trees: a novel management tool for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae),”, K. M. Addesso and H. J. McAuslane, “Pepper weevil attraction to volatiles from host and nonhost plants,”. Based on these results which indicated that the physiological conditions of adult plum curculio have very little effect on their response to the lures, data obtained for weevils of different physiological states (i.e., age, diet, and mating) were pooled by sex and analyzed using one-way ANOVA to compare response of each sex to different lure treatments. In the mixed PE + TCB treatment, both compounds were released from separate vials placed in the assigned olfactometer arm. endstream However, it should be noted that the study by [15] used overwintering adults whose physiological conditions were largely unknown (with the exception of diet), whereas the weevils used in the present study were from a laboratory source and with known physiological conditions. D. L. Horton, “Southeastern peach insect pest management—its evolution and implementation,” Tech. Similar results were also obtained when PE was compared against a treatment consisting of the three lures (i.e., BZ + PE + GA; data not presented). Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of many stone and pome fruit crops, which is widely distributed over the United States (U.S.) and Canada, east of the Rocky Mountains [1–4]. Most orders will be shipped within 2 days. <>>>/Contents 12 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> endobj endobj Traps are a good indicator of likely plum curculio pressure in the area, and should be placed on the borders of orchards w… The relatively greater attractiveness of PE lure may be due to its higher release rates, as determined in the release rate experiment. $387.00. There is currently no evidence which suggests that TCB is a component of the general volatiles complex released by any of the host plants of plum curculio. Our products help to reduce or eliminate the use of pesticides. The position of each lure in the olfactometer was alternated after each replicate (i.e., lures were reassigned to different olfactometer arms) to minimize position effect. For each experiment, groups of five female or male weevils (>20 days old, mated, and starved for 24 h) were released in the olfactometer. TCB was tested singly with PE at a dose similar to that detected in the BZ lure. Two strains of plum curculio, namely, the northern and southern strains, are known to occur in continental North America. In experiment 1, pure benzaldehyde (BEN) and pure 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB), the two key chemical components identified in the commercial BZ lure, were compared against BZ lure. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � � Earlier studies identified several active compounds from host plants (both fruiting and nonfruiting parts) which are attractive to plum curculio [16, 17, 20, 21]. Two experiments were conducted each comparing three odor treatments versus control consisting of empty microcentrifuge vials. 1�AS���-���Sϱ3����D-�=�)6,z_%O��|΢�����^;1 c�V�|�t%�$-�^*�7E,o�WKL� �eWa���� WbÕ�z֥�x�g�"P�|�����X�� /+�U0�Q'-��!�U�bQ�Ҟb����%���@����&V=������b�S!�DBڸ��{�ةS�S��:�Sn�q�!~��~����r '���@�F���\�����;e����ʁ��F�l�m\+؄ Contrary to field reports, GA lure was not attractive, while BZ lure was inhibitory. endobj Also, captures of weevils in traps baited with this combined lure or other synthetic attractants can decline rapidly after fruit set due to intense competition from volatiles released by rapidly developing fruit [18, 29]. Rep., Cooperative Extension Service, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga, USA, 1998. t#����Wqփ����Āc=�%�Y\��_I ���� �tۭ߯���&PYP����g�_2���)���.Zeۻ蚲, �0��ޯ�TuO�}�9\�������XP����D6�\�D_���rC�X�g*���B�4�*`!�K�������BwjaBNǡ[r.=�Ң�݌��y �E���XU�����R1�����]�Zn%�v06Q*Rs��}��0�п�^��N x�+�r We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. The four-choice olfactometer system was similar to that described by [38, 39]. The reduced attractiveness of the combined PE + TCB treatment relative to PE further supports this possibility. The experiment was conducted at °C, % RH between 1600 and 2400 h local time. The results are in contrast to those reported by [15], which showed that starved weevils responded more than fed weevils to hexane extract of wild plum. The combined BZ + GA lure is presently the most widely used attractant for monitoring plum curculio in orchards [22, 26, 28–30]. The model also allowed testing for effects of single (one-way), double (two-way), triple (three-way), ternary (four-way), and five-way interactions (a total of 31 possible interactions) (Table 1) among the five factors. Box LG 25, Legon, Accra, Ghana. In addition to confirming the superior attractiveness of PE, these results also showed the nonattractiveness of BZ not only as a single lure but also when combined with PE. �26S073QI�r � The experiment was replicated 12 times per sex. Means having no letter in common are significantly different (ANOVA, Tukey-Kramer HSD, P. J. Chapman, “The plum curculio as an apple pest,”, C. D. Mampe and H. H. Neunzig, “The biology, parasitism, and population sampling of the plum curculio on blueberry in North Carolina,”, G. Racette, G. Chouinard, C. Vincent, and S. B. Hill, “Ecology and management of plum curculio in apple orchards,”, D. L. Horton and H. C. Ellis, “Plum curculio,” in. While some studies have reported significant effect of some physiological factors on beetle response to host odor (e.g., [31–34, 44]), others have reported no effect [45]. Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of stone and pome fruits in North America. Significant differences in release rates were recorded among the lures and compounds (i.e., BEN, BZ, PE, and TCB) (, , and ). Groups of five females or males of each physiological treatment were released in the olfactometer and replicated six times per sex. �26S073QI�r � The weevils used to start the laboratory colony were collected from peach orchards in central Alabama and had been reared for more than 10 generations before the tests. Technical Bulletin. %PDF-1.4 endobj We have a innovative development program. The lures evaluated were commercial liquid formulations of benzaldehyde (BZ), plum essence (PE), and grandisoic acid (GA). endobj Benzaldehyde has since been formulated as an attractant for plum curculio and is commercially available as a lure. 2 0 obj Monitoring of plum curculio adults is difficult since they respond poorly to olfactory or visual traps. Females and males were separated using the methods of [37] and then tested separately. Clement Akotsen-Mensah, Henry Y. Fadamiro, "Behavioral Response of Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to Synthetic Fruit Volatile Lures and the Male-Produced Aggregation Pheromone", Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, vol. endobj Consequently, a combined lure consisting of BZ and GA was developed in Massachusetts, in USA, [26] and Quebec, in Canada, and remains to date the most widely used attractant for monitoring plum curculio in orchards [22, 26, 28–30]. The difference between the results of this laboratory study and the above field reports may be related to differences between experimental conditions and other factors such as the release rates of the lures. The BZ and PE lures were in liquid form and were used without any major modifications through either dilution or mixing with solvents.