The vat was made with. I might add that the group love using this indigo as we can get the pot going in no time and do not have to heat it . Mordanting is done with a quick dip in a very small amount of solution and for indigo he is now mixing all three ingredients dry and then creating a vortex to add them to. But even industry has been concerned about the longterm effects of chemical reduction and disposal. Each of the small indigo test vats (mostly 1 liter) are designed and made to answer a single question such as: Small samples are dyed daily in the sample vats and I monitor  both the pH and the temperature of the solution. I would like to switch to using a natural process for indigo. Last summer Joy Boutrup and I taught a class together at Penland School of Crafts, located near my home in western North Carolina. This biennial event brings together scholars, curators, and artists from all over the world who will present their original research in the form of organized panels and talks. Winters here are pretty mild and I’m willing to forego indigo dyeing if temps drop and the vat hibernates. Today I want to share issues with indigo and crocking. I am currently reading (and very much enjoying) Braiding Sweetgrass by Robin Wall Kimmerer. I guess I’m relating this story to demonstrate that changes are taking place. Dried Polygonum tinctorium leaves. The last 15 years has seen a rise in global enthusiasm for all things natural and an explosion of the modern love of indigo. 0000003950 00000 n I can’t emphasize enough how important the rinsing/finishing is after dyeing with indigo. 2 parts iron Why did this process work so well on raffia- a cellulose fiber? The facility I have used for a number of years was a community college and I only had access on weekends and was not able to leave a vat there over any length of time. Then I dye a test sample. I’ve got a question about pre reduced indigo 60%. But artisan dyers are not industry…. Henna vat: Henna is an antioxidant and as such, can be used as a reducer in an indigo vat. It has been so informative. I’ve also ordered it book! The leaves were used to dye the raffia fibers directly. 3 parts fruit sugar (fructose) -henna can also be used ( Log Out /  0000002517 00000 n Up until the second half of the 19th century, natural plant and insect dyes were the source of all textile colors, but by the early 20th century chemical dyes were quickly replacing the natural dyes in industry. This approach of heat application was new to me. It may be slightly lumpy at first but keep stirring. Both leaves were ground fine before applying them to the textile. Did once get it to be green. Finding alum in a plant is very much like a gift – to be received gratefully – but not to be turned into a commodity. There are also indigo recipes out there that use toxic chemicals, and we also (obviously) aren't interested in that. I was surprised by the results. Thank you for the detailed post! The vat is designed to dissolve the solid indigo and convert it to the soluble form in the liquor; leuco-indigo. Donna Hardy will also do a post symposium workshop at Cloth Fiber Workshop. This means fermentation is starting. Occasional dyeing using these types of vats may not result in noticeable effects but if you stand with your head over an indigo vat day after day, then serious breathing problems could result. If your water is not acidic, or has calcium in it, then these tests may not be relevant but the addition of chalk will never harm the fiber or the dye and may release more color. 0000093424 00000 n �B�����:����.�w ���H~�_�/졠�� Preparing the Dye Vat to Receive the Indigo Stock Solution. If you scroll down to Section 10 it states: “Hazardous Decomposition Products: Thermal oxidative decomposition of Thiourea Dioxide can produce toxic fumes of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides.” I consulted with a friend doing quantities of indigo dyeing for a company in Maine. As a result, the dye is less fast to washing and crocking and is not likely to be even. Indigo dyeing has become an integral part of my studio work and experimentations. Also – I see “mineral” reduction mentioned. I suggested that she try my approach to achieving pale blues: use only a small amount of indigo in the vat (1-2 grams per liter). This chemistry of this vat must operate a bit differently because, while I could mix the other 3 vats together - this one must stand alone. But I’ve recently been asked about the safety of these reducing chemicals. 0000004064 00000 n I have been keeping careful records of these vats, sampling on a regular basis and documenting and recording any additions. While the sugar vat is the fastest to get started, Catharine warned us that it functions like a sugar high in our own systems - there is also a bit of a 'sugar-crash' and it may not last as long as a vat and/or might require more care and feeding to keep it going. 2 weeks? 0000014827 00000 n After a few days the color became lighter, but after the addition of supplemental organic materials (sugar, more walnut juice, cooked fruit juice etc.) I was with Joy Boutrup last week (we were teaching together in Iceland!) Some of the dyers are experiencing a variety of health problems as a result of the exposure to the chemicals. At the same time I found reference to Michel Garcia’s 1-2-3 recipe. It’s always good to take a class though, so that you can actually go through the process with someone who knows the process. He commandeered his family greenhouse (which had previously contained tomato plants) to set up a series of lightfastness tests. Some industrial users have begun to use electrical reduction instead of chemicals for all vat dyes. We made a vat that was reduced with henna (Lawsonia inermis). Since the book was published I have been very interested to learn more about indigo fermentation. After making the dye decoction, I divided the dye bath in two equal portions and added both wool and cotton to each bath. Some of Maiwa’s vats are over five-years old. Put it out in the sun and let nature do its thing! If the solution is not changing color, stir the deposit at the bottom of the jar, and place the jar in a water bath and carefully heat it to 140°F. Other chemicals can be used to stop the reduction but they are just as damaging. Conclusion: the reduction chemicals will reduce the maximum amount of indigo, making it impossible to achieve the pale colors, while in the sugar vat, only part of the indigo is reduced at a time. The vats smelled bad and I felt that I never truly understood them. I dye wool fabric for traditional rughooking and once it is rinsed and neutralized there is never any smell attached to the fabric. I have a 30 liter vat that I have using regularly for several months and am now preparing to make a 150 liter vat for use with larger textiles. Sample indigo vats. Can patience and solar heating substitute? Our group of dyers are using 60% reduced indigo and following your instructions for using it which were published on the net by Earth Guild. All makes sense and reflects exactly what i’ve experienced. z��s��{�y�y�y�y�y�y�y�y�x�x:؂��9Q�M�������R�4C��.����,�_�-� {��f I’ve been exposed to the hydrosulfite vat, and have experimented with the fruit vat ( using bananas/ mangoes mostly)…still have to try the other organic vats. An hour? Recently I have been introduced to a variety of symplocos  (Sympolocos tinctoria)  that is native to the southeastern United States. I used 4 grams of indigo, two walnut hulls, and about 10 grams of lime. This book was based on the original dye notebooks of Antoine Janot, a professional dyer from the Occitan region of the country. It can be irritating to the nose, throat, and airways and potentially paralyzing to breathing if inhaled in large quantities. Symplocos is a plant species that accumulates alum mordant. If you’re new to making it , you honestly have no idea if you should see a change in a matter of minutes, hours or days. My main issues were the sediment making it necessary to dump the vat at certain point, wasting the water (where with Thio I can use the same water pretty much indefinitely), and the electrical energy required to keep the henna (1-2-3) vat hot enough to maintain a reduced state (I’m using 2 aquarium tank heaters). 0000007846 00000 n thanks for writing about this, the planet will be more healthy as well as us if we all used the organic vat way. Think of the rising of bread dough! The two photos below show the fruit vat Wednesday morning and again at noon. 3 weeks? I now teach that from my own studio space with good results. Rinse the fibers in cool water until the water runs clear. What strikes me about this story is the recognition of lightfastness being of value at a time when there was such excitement about the ability to easily produce almost any color through the use of the new “chemical” dyes. Individual samples on the left had chalk added to the bath. Two days? It is a perennial in that climate and the leaves are harvested from the bushes as needed. Do check the MSDS though, just to be sure.