Lett. 3–11. What Are Some Interesting Facts About the Earth's Mantle. The transformations of stishovite into a poststishovite modification at a depth of ∼1500 km and of aragonite into the postaragonite phase with an unusual structure at a depth of ∼1050 km are inherent to this geosphere. This controversial layer at the bottom of the mantle, about 200 kilometers thick, has the odd name "D-double-prime.". Thus, modern mantle studies are conducted by seismologists, computer programmers, and lab researchers who can now reproduce conditions anywhere in the mantle with high-pressure laboratory equipment like the diamond-anvil cell. Yu. Press, Cambridge, 1947; Mir, Moscow, 1966). ), 577 (1992). The world's patterns of volcanism reflect the action of plate tectonics, except in a few areas of the planet called hotspots. The transition zone is located between 410 and 660 kilometers, at which depths major physical changes occur to minerals. The high-velocity heterogeneities are round and oval in shape and in some cases reach a few thousand kilometers in size. Sci. N. Funamori, R. Jeanloz, J. H. Nguyen, et al., “High-Pressure Transformations in MgAl2O4,” J. Geophys. Sci. Fact Check: What Power Does the President Really Have Over State Governors? The mantle is the thick layer of hot, solid rock between the Earth's crust and the molten iron core. The two different kinds of seismic wave, P waves (analogous to sound waves) and S waves (like the waves in a shaken rope), respond to the physical properties of the rocks they go through. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0016852108010019. 99(B4), 6945–6980 (1994). Facts about Mantle talk about a layer, which can be found on earth and other terrestrial planets. Matter 17, 269–276 (2005). The mantle starts about 30 kilometers down and is about 2,900 kilometers thick. Pushcharovsky, Y.M., Pushcharovsky, D.Y. Lett. M. Pushcharovsky and D. Yu. These show that the uppermost part of the mantle consists of the rock types peridotite and eclogite. The rock in the mantle is very hot and can be viscous or molten depending on the temperature and the pressure. Rep. 51 (5), 767–777 (2006)]. Part of Springer Nature. It has three main layers. S. Ono, T. Kikegawa, Y. Ohishi, and J. Tsuchiya, “Post-Aragonite Phase Transformation in CaCO3 at 40 GPa,” Am. The formation of mantle will take place as long as the planetary body is big enough. Akad. These are rocks made largely of iron and magnesium, and mafic is a portmanteau of the words "magnesium" and "ferric." There is also a boundary between the crust and the mantle called the Mohorovičić discontinuity or the Moho. It makes up the bulk of the Earth, accounting for two-thirds of the planet's mass. The distribution of such heterogeneities is nonuniform and varies from one depth level to another. G. Kh. 112, B01302, (2007) dol: 10.1029/2005 JB004154. R. L. Saltzer, E. Stutzmann, and R. D. Hilst, “Poisson’s Ratio in the Lower Mantle beneath Alaska: Evidence for Compositional Heterogeneity,” J. Geophys. Surrounding the core, the mantle makes up about 84 percent of the volume of the Earth. Article  M. Pushcharovsky, “Structure, Energetics, and Tectonics of the Earth’s Mantle,” Vest. Res. Festival of Sacrifice: The Past and Present of the Islamic Holiday of Eid al-Adha. Yu. Nauk 411(4), 523–526 (2006) [Dokl. The middle mantle as a separate geosphere within a depth interval of 840 to 1700 km was recognized in 1995 by Yu.M. 42, 1–7 (2008). S. M. Stishov and S. V. Popova, “A New Dense Modification of Silicon Oxide,” Geokhimiya, No. Pushcharovsky, “Geosphere of the Earth’s Mantle,” Geotektonika 33(1), 3–14 (1999) [Geotectonics 33 (1), 1–11 (1999)]. The thickness of this boundary can vary. 87, 1261–1265 (2002). 01 125, 281–291 (1994). J. Geol. 100(1), VI–VII (1994). Will 5G Impact Our Cell Phone Plans (or Our Health?! 13, 1541–1544 (1986). Hotspots may be a clue to the rise and fall of material much deeper in the mantle, possibly from its very bottom. The mantle is the thick layer of hot, solid rock between the Earth's crust and the molten iron core. Still, the most exciting thing we get from the mantle is diamonds. It is about 3 miles beneath the crust at its shallowest point. The structure, energetics, and tectonics of the middle mantle, as well as phase transformations inherent to this geosphere, are characterized in this paper. K. E. Bullen, The Earth’s Density (Wiley, New York, 1975; Mir, Moscow, 1978). A. R. Oganov and S. Ono, “Theoretical and Experimental Evidence for a Post-Perovskite Phase of MgSiO3 in Earth’s D Layer,” Nature 430, 445–448 (2004). Res. M. Pushcharovsky, “Three Paradigms in Geology,” Geotektonika 30(1), 4–11 (1995). : Condens. It is the largest layer of the Earth, taking up 84% of the Earth. 411A (9), 1442–1444 (2006)]. The distribution of seismic heterogeneities established by seismic tomography is a definitive attribute of the given geosphere. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience and for our, Exploring the Mantle with Earthquake Waves, The Mantle's Layers and Internal Boundaries, Benjamin Van Der Spek / EyeEm / Getty Images, Magma Versus Lava: How It Melts, Rises, and Evolves, Everything You Need to Know About the Lithosphere, Orogeny: How Mountains Form Through Plate Tectonics, Introduction to Convergent Plate Boundaries, Zealandia: The Drowned Continent of the South, B.A., Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire.