In the absence of Lennox and with no evidence presented, Bothwell was acquitted after a seven-hour trial on 12 April. [56], King Francis II died on 5 December 1560, of a middle ear infection that led to an abscess in his brain. Darnley's parents, the Earl and Countess of Lennox, were Scottish aristocrats as well as English landowners. [89] Mary's insistence on the marriage seems to have stemmed from passion rather than calculation; the English ambassador Nicholas Throckmorton stated "the saying is that surely she [Queen Mary] is bewitched",[90] adding that the marriage could only be averted "by violence". [120] There were no visible marks of strangulation or violence on the body. Photos: DeAgostini/Getty Images; National Galleries Of Scotland/Getty Images. [170], The majority of the commissioners accepted the casket letters as genuine after a study of their contents and comparison of the penmanship with examples of Mary's handwriting. Mary of Guise was King James V’s second wife. [58] Her mother-in-law, Catherine de' Medici, became regent for the late king's ten-year-old brother Charles IX, who inherited the French throne. Mary's captivity would last for the next 18 years. Here, Mary returns to Scotland to claim her throne, while in the series, Mary has just left for France. [10] Rumours spread that she was weak and frail,[11] but an English diplomat, Ralph Sadler, saw the infant at Linlithgow Palace in March 1543, unwrapped by her nurse, and wrote, "it is as goodly a child as I have seen of her age, and as like to live. [189] Norfolk continued to scheme for a marriage with Mary, and Elizabeth imprisoned him in the Tower of London between October 1569 and August 1570. He sent copies to Elizabeth, saying that if they were genuine, they might prove Mary's guilt. [18] The Earl of Lennox escorted Mary and her mother to Stirling on 27 July 1543 with 3,500 armed men. In February 1567, Darnley's residence was destroyed by an explosion, and he was found murdered in the garden. [181] She needed 30 carts to transport her belongings from house to house. [73], Mary then turned her attention to finding a new husband from the royalty of Europe. She was 44 years old. She was found guilty of treason and sentenced to death. All were said to have been found in a silver-gilt casket just less than one foot (30 cm) long and decorated with the monogram of King Francis II. Her only condition was the immediate alleviation of the conditions of her captivity. By the 1580s, she had severe rheumatism in her limbs, rendering her lame. He succeeded to his father's throne in 1559, making Mary Queen of France as well as Scotland, but his reign was brief for he died of an ear infection in 1560. Mary spent the remainder of her life in captivity until her 1587 execution. Mary and Bothwell confronted the lords at Carberry Hill on 15 June, but there was no battle, as Mary's forces dwindled away through desertion during negotiations. [101] Over the next two days, a disillusioned Darnley switched sides and Mary received Moray at Holyrood. Scottish Catholics, however, objected to this plan, since England had separated from the Catholic Church. What this meant was that Mary was about to spend her formative years only rais… Darnley was found dead in the garden, apparently smothered. Her last words were, In manus tuas, Domine, commendo spiritum meum ("Into thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit"). [133] Bothwell was given safe passage from the field. Moray refused, as Chastelard was already under restraint. [244] There is no concrete proof of her complicity in Darnley's murder or of a conspiracy with Bothwell. Mary of Teck became Queen Mary, consort of King George V. She was the mother of kings Edward VIII and George VI, and the grandmother of Queen Elizabeth II. [240] In the latter half of the twentieth century, the work of Antonia Fraser was acclaimed as "more objective ... free from the excesses of adulation or attack" that had characterised older biographies,[241] and her contemporaries Gordon Donaldson and Ian B. Cowan also produced more balanced works. [158] The surviving copies, in French or translated into English, do not form a complete set. Historian claims husband of Mary, Queen of Scots … The first blow missed her neck and struck the back of her head. [47] Henry II of France proclaimed his eldest son and daughter-in-law king and queen of England. [36] Her future sister-in-law, Elisabeth of Valois, became a close friend of whom Mary "retained nostalgic memories in later life". James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month he married Mary. Catherine of Aragon was King Henry VIII's first wife. She briefly became queen consort in France before returning to Scotland. Elizabeth had succeeded in maintaining a Protestant government in Scotland, without either condemning or releasing her fellow sovereign. [77] The proposal came to nothing, not least because the intended bridegroom was unwilling. After Mary's son became King James I of England, he moved his mother's body to Westminster Abbey in 1612. [85][86], English statesmen William Cecil and the Earl of Leicester had worked to obtain Darnley's licence to travel to Scotland from his home in England. Mary was born on 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife, Mary of Guise. [206][207] Spirited in her defence, Mary denied the charges. [185] She was occasionally allowed outside under strict supervision,[186] spent seven summers at the spa town of Buxton, and spent much of her time doing embroidery. [43] On 4 April 1558, Mary signed a secret agreement bequeathing Scotland and her claim to England to the French crown if she died without issue. Yet, in the eyes of many Catholics, Elizabeth was illegitimate and Mary Stuart was the rightful queen of England, as the senior surviving legitimate descendant of Henry VII through her grandmother, Margaret Tudor. [199] In April, Mary was placed in the stricter custody of Sir Amias Paulet. [33] When Lady Fleming left France in 1551, she was succeeded by a French governess, Françoise de Paroy. For Scotland, she proposed a general amnesty, agreed that James should marry with Elizabeth's knowledge, and accepted that there should be no change in religion. [143] On 18 May, local officials took her into protective custody at Carlisle Castle. Even the one significant later addition to the council, Lord Ruthven in December 1563, was another Protestant whom Mary personally disliked. Get to know the Queen of France, featured in The Spanish Princess, here. [118] On the night of 9–10 February 1567, Mary visited her husband in the early evening and then attended the wedding celebrations of a member of her household, Bastian Pagez.