Most entries contain a chronology and supplemental bibliography, and the author cites numerous primary and secondary sources throughout. Description: According to the creator of this interesting website, experimental philosophy ‘supplements the traditional tools of analytic philosophy with the scientific methods of cognitive science’. In the end we subdivided psychology into three: Clinical and Applied Psychology; Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Science; and Developmental, Social, Personality, and Motivational Psychology. The second thing to be said is that the argument may not be correct. So all we have is a reduction of the social to the social. Such an approach analyzes a cognitive task as a sequence of less intelligent subtasks (in this case using recognizable computational and information processing concepts), but it does so relative to a larger (not merely neural) organizational whole. Conventional models of syntax and semantics assume that knowledge of language consists in ‘knowing that’ language is certain way, and not in any sense ‘knowing how’ to use language. Though Ryle himself advocated a certain kind of knowing-how view, the characterisation of knowledge in a knowing-that sense has overwhelmingly held sway in linguistics and in cognitive science more widely (it has also been dominant in philosophy, though see [Bengen and Moffett, 2007]20). An influential model for this sort of approach is microphysical reduction in the sciences; we reduce water to H2O by showing that the properties of a body of water are just the properties of a collection of suitably related H2O molecules (relations are important because the molecules have to have the right kinds of bonds, for example). In sum, language is a vehicle for constructing thoughts from the building blocks which our words provide. Table 2. Here, too, we acknowledge that our decisions reflect some arbitrariness, and that other scholars would create overlapping but different lists. Its coverage of women philosophers is admirably thorough. 3.2) should be differentiated. 2.2) and linguistic philosophy (Sect 2.3), while the, Representationalism and Linguistic Knowledge, The view of grammar that we have advocated in this article has implications for another fundamental assumption that underpins linguistic methodology. Logically, this leaves open the possibility of a knowing-how model which characterises not dispositions, abilities and behaviours but the principles underlying them, which is suitably abstracted from the data and which in all other ways satisfies the need for a coherent and tractable account of linguistic knowledge. Governmental and foundation donors organize their giving in part under discipline-named programs and program officers. B. Loewer, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Rather, it will be assumed simply from now on that it is successful—thereby conceding apparently vital ground to the individualist—and ask whether we would then be justified in agreeing with MI that explanations of social phenomena ought to appeal only to facts about individuals. Although we believed from the beginning that we needed a more or less systematic selection and classification of the behavioral and social sciences under which to select section editors and organize entries, we also realized that the actual practice of social and behavioral science demanded that we employ other criteria as well. 2.2) and linguistic philosophy (Sect 2.3), while the philosophy of mind, which is also oriented towards linguistic analysis, again picks up the aspects of Sect. With this rationale in mind, we listed eight additional disciplines on the basis of their conceptual affinity to the social and behavioral sciences and the amount of social and behavioral science research carried on in them. How can the mind represent the world? Societies are founded on communities, states on communities, and societal unities. At this point we entered an arena of uncertainty, because some areas we wanted to include are not usually labeled as social or behavioral sciences, and many of them include other kinds of research. Applied to first person sensation language, this resulted in public accessibility and social determination of subjective psychological states, all the more so since Wittgenstein treated verbal expressive behavior as a special case of expressive behavior in general. This approach is known as the computational theory of mind. An intriguing suggestion found in McNeill (2005) and Goldin-Meadow (2003) is that actual spatially extended physical gestures sometimes act as cognitive elements in their own right, so that speech, gesture, and neural activities unite to form a single integrated cognitive system. The community—families, tribes, clans, peoples—displays such forms of collective intentionality as sympathy, trust, piety, loyalty, and collective responsibility rather than individual responsibility. Within societies self-interest, mistrust, and a lack of solidarity go together with the predominance of the artificial relations engendered by social acts such as promising and contracts which connect autonomous, individually responsible persons. A comparable reduction of social entities to individuals aims to show that social entities like collectives are nothing over and above collections of suitably related individuals. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001.