John Snow Rhazes was a Persian Physician who was the first person to differentiate between smallpox and measles. 32-37), available at: He is considered to be one of the fathers of epidemiology, because of his work in tracing the source of a cholera outbreak in Soho, England, in 1854. Over 200 viruses cause common cold symptoms Symptoms vary Antibiotics are useless making other treatment options a substantial public health interest Winter is Coming... Transcript: Most basic model S- Number of people susceptible I- Number of people that have been infected R- Number of people that have recovered Can add different terms to make this more realistic The cost of 10 shots of the vaccine costs around $10 SIR MODEL Data Collection Epidemiology : The Spread of Influenza Conclusion Model used to predict how a disease will react in a real world situation Just like the SIR the variables S, I and R are the same E stands for the people that are exposed to the disease Models General x-tics One type of surveillance conducted is Virological Surveillance On a weekly basis, the organizations in this program report the number of respiratory specimens tested Along with the number of those specimens who resulted positive for influenza types A and B Note: 18.5% infected dying was more deadly versus 50%! 8-10 hour days 4-50 hours per week Typically work in state health departments Sources- Elearn Portal- WHO Online - United South Inc. - PLAN AND DIRECT future studies of diseases and illnesses RESEARCH different illnesses and diseases COLLABORATE with pharmacists to find out ways to contain outbreaks Average Salary - $55,000/y $1,480/bi-weekly, Transcript: huddle Mrs. Rossi huddle to crowd together crowd huddle separate, Transcript: Epidemiologists are often are hired through state or local health departments, hospitals and colleges or universities. From the College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan. This template features a effective sales kickoff theme that makes it easy to be engaging. The key feature of analytic epidemiology is a comparison group. As of this date, Scribd will manage your SlideShare account and any content you may have on SlideShare, and Scribd's General Terms of Use and Privacy Policy will apply. If you wish to opt out, please close your SlideShare account. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.  1854 -John Snow, was considered the “father of field epidemiology. Without treatment, death can occur within hours. A deadly outbreak of cholera is spreading. He also studied numerous diseases in hopes to find a cure. Again the model can be used to predict the behavior of an epidemic diseases in years to come E which is the number people who are infected but not yet infectious over time. He also used Hippocratic Method for clinical observation. Description: Storytelling is at the heart of great service. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. How to become an Epidemiologist? Rate provide data essential for planning, implementation & evaluation Prevent + Control + Treat Incidence commonly used measures I keep 6 honest serving men; they taught me all I know. During his time on board he observed the disease called scurvy. Common Cold Incidence for common cold is clearly high (anecdotal evidence) BUT, data for hypothesis is lacking Clear incidence of influenza been used as substitute Mortality figures show it is a severe problem facing health service Common Cold is a coronavirus (but can be caused by a rhinovirus too) Grouped with SARS Distinguishable from other common winter diseases such as influenza (an orthomyxovirus) By Aiken Yam & Jack Steadman Public Health England (2012/2013): Influenza activity in UK rose to only low levels Activity was prolonged Reached Levels higher than those seen in 2011/2012 Both children and adults affected Initially marked by outbreaks in schools After Christmas, outbreaks in care homes Brace yourselves... References: 1Isba R, Rapid Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicines [online], Blackwell Publishing, November 2003, available at: 8. Accessed 14th November 2013 8Hemila H, Kaprio J, Albanes D, Heinonen O P, Virtamo J, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Beta-Carotene in Relation to Common Cold Incidence in Male Smokers [online], Epidemiology 13;1 January 2002 (pp. Although epidemiology as a discipline has blossomed since World War II, epidemiologic thinking has been traced from Hippocrates through John Graunt, William Farr, John Snow, and others. He practiced using controlled dosages of chloroform, which made the drug safer and more effective. This project will mainly focus on two different models, SIR and SEIR models. Correspondence: Nigel Paneth, B 636 West Fee Hall, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823. We are breeding antibiotic resistant e-coli. Description: The sky’s the limit. John Snow: The Father of Epidemiology Snow’s cholera discovery began in late 1848, when a deadly outbreak of Asian cholera struck London. Also they work to reduce the occerence and the risk of negative health outcomes. If you wish to opt out, please close your SlideShare account. 2. Though it wasn’t unlike ones before it, it acted as an epidemiological testing ground for John Snow. Lecture 1. an introduction to epidemiology, No public clipboards found for this slide. As he was observing the mold he noticed it had a bacteria-free circle around it. The story has been elegantly told in The Ghost Map by Steven Johnson, who describes the conditions in London in the 1800s situation in the brief video below. Lemuel Shattuck (1867-1895) Louis Pasteur James Lind (1881-1955) Thomas Sydenham is remembered to be the 'English Hippocrates' because he put emphasis on accurate observations and ethical clinical procedures. 1. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Koch also worked on Tuberculosis in the 1890s. As she studied minerals she found they all had different levels of radioactivity (a term she coined). Cholera pandemics spread around the globe, Most have started in the Indian Subcontinent, Cholera sufferers are dehydrated and often have, Cholera pandemics caused great fear and changed, Miasma - bad or malodorous air as a cause of, Public health efforts concentrated on finding the, Many believed that alcohol would protect against, There was some perception that disease could be, It was against this background of confusion that, Mapping of cases led John snow to suspect water, He found that those who were affected had drunk, He identified that a child at number 40 Broad, John Snow recommended the pump should not be used, After the handle was removed the outbreak, Despite this there was scepticism about his, Two water companies supplied one area. And they’re ready for you to use in your PowerPoint presentations the moment you need them. He called it penicillin. He made great discoveries about anthrax during 1872-1880. Accessed 14th November 2013 9ONS, Excess Winter Mortality in England and Wales, 2011/12 (Provisional) and 2010/2011 (Final) [online], available at: